What is IPsec?
IPsec is a group of protocols that are used together to set up encrypted connections between devices. It helps keep data sent over public networks secure. IPsec is often used to set up VPNs, and it works by encrypting IP packets, along with authenticating the source where the packets come from.
Within the term "IPsec," "IP" stands for "Internet Protocol" and "sec" for "secure." The Internet Protocol is the main routing protocol used on the Internet; it designates where data will go using IP addresses. IPsec is secure because it adds encryption* and authentication to this process.
*Encryption is the process of concealing information by mathematically altering data so that it appears random. In simpler terms, encryption is the use of a "secret code" that only authorized parties can interpret.
What is a VPN? What is an IPsec VPN?
A virtual private network (VPN) is an encrypted connection between two or more computers. VPN connections take place over public networks, but the data exchanged over the VPN is still private because it is encrypted.
VPNs make it possible to securely access and exchange confidential data over shared network infrastructure, such as the public Internet. For instance, when employees are working remotely instead of in the office, they often use VPNs to access corporate files and applications.
Many VPNs use the IPsec protocol suite to establish and run these encrypted connections. However, not all VPNs use IPsec. Another protocol for VPNs is SSL/TLS, which operates at a different layer in the OSI model than IPsec. (The OSI model is an abstract representation of the processes that make the Internet work.)
How do users connect to an IPsec VPN?
Users can access an IPsec VPN by logging into a VPN application, or "client." This typically requires the user to have installed the application on their device.
VPN logins are usually password-based. While data sent over a VPN is encrypted, if user passwords are compromised, attackers can log into the VPN and steal this encrypted data. Using two-factor authentication (2FA) can strengthen IPsec VPN security, since stealing a password alone will no longer give an attacker access.
How does IPsec work?
IPsec connections include the following steps:
Key exchange: Keys are necessary for encryption; a key is a string of random characters that can be used to "lock" (encrypt) and "unlock" (decrypt) messages. IPsec sets up keys with a key exchange between the connected devices, so that each device can decrypt the other device's messages.
Packet headers and trailers: All data that is sent over a network is broken down into smaller pieces called packets. Packets contain both a payload, or the actual data being sent, and headers, or information about that data so that computers receiving the packets know what to do with them. IPsec adds several headers to data packets containing authentication and encryption information. IPsec also adds trailers, which go after each packet's payload instead of before.
Authentication: IPsec provides authentication for each packet, like a stamp of authenticity on a collectible item. This ensures that packets are from a trusted source and not an attacker.
Encryption: IPsec encrypts the payloads within each packet and each packet's IP header (unless transport mode is used instead of tunnel mode — see below). This keeps data sent over IPsec secure and private.
Transmission: Encrypted IPsec packets travel across one or more networks to their destination using a transport protocol. At this stage, IPsec traffic differs from regular IP traffic in that it most often uses UDP as its transport protocol, rather than TCP. TCP, the Transmission Control Protocol, sets up dedicated connections between devices and ensures that all packets arrive. UDP, the User Datagram Protocol, does not set up these dedicated connections. IPsec uses UDP because this allows IPsec packets to get through firewalls.
Decryption: At the other end of the communication, the packets are decrypted, and applications (e.g. a browser) can now use the delivered data.
What protocols are used in IPsec?
In networking, a protocol is a specified way of formatting data so that any networked computer can interpret the data. IPsec is not one protocol, but a suite of protocols. The following protocols make up the IPsec suite:
Authentication Header (AH): The AH protocol ensures that data packets are from a trusted source and that the data has not been tampered with, like a tamper-proof seal on a consumer product. These headers do not provide any encryption; they do not help conceal the data from attackers.
Encapsulating Security Protocol (ESP): ESP encrypts the IP header and the payload for each packet — unless transport mode is used, in which case it only encrypts the payload. ESP adds its own header and a trailer to each data packet.
Security Association (SA): SA refers to a number of protocols used for negotiating encryption keys and algorithms. One of the most common SA protocols is Internet Key Exchange (IKE).
Finally, while the Internet Protocol (IP) is not part of the IPsec suite, IPsec runs directly on top of IP.
What is the difference between IPsec tunnel mode and IPsec transport mode?
IPsec tunnel mode is used between two dedicated routers, with each router acting as one end of a virtual "tunnel" through a public network. In IPsec tunnel mode, the original IP header containing the final destination of the packet is encrypted, in addition to the packet payload. To tell intermediary routers where to forward the packets, IPsec adds a new IP header. At each end of the tunnel, the routers decrypt the IP headers to deliver the packets to their destinations.
In transport mode, the payload of each packet is encrypted, but the original IP header is not. Intermediary routers are thus able to view the final destination of each packet — unless a separate tunneling protocol (such as GRE) is used.
What port does IPsec use?
A network port is the virtual location where data goes in a computer. Ports are how computers keep track of different processes and connections; if data goes to a certain port, the computer's operating system knows which process it belongs to. IPsec usually uses port 500.
How does IPsec impact MSS and MTU?
MSS and MTU are two measurements of packet size. Packets can only reach a certain size (measured in bytes) before computers, routers, and switches cannot handle them. MSS measures the size of each packet's payload, while MTU measures the entire packet, including headers. Packets that exceed a network's MTU may be fragmented, meaning broken up into smaller packets and then reassembled. Packets that exceed the MSS are simply dropped.
IPsec protocols add several headers and trailers to packets, all of which take up several bytes. For networks that use IPsec, either the MSS and MTU have to be adjusted accordingly, or packets will be fragmented and slightly delayed. Usually, the MTU for a network is 1,500 bytes. A normal IP header is 20 bytes long, and a TCP header is also 20 bytes long, meaning each packet can contain 1,460 bytes of payload. However, IPsec adds an Authentication Header, an ESP header, and associated trailers. These add 50-60 bytes to a packet, or more.
Learn more about MTU and MSS in "What is MTU?"